The Genome as the Harry Potter Series

Written by Kelly A. Hogan, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

The genetic code is often described as being analogous to the written language. I expand this analogy to help students understand the hierarchy that exists in genetics, since I find many students don’t understand the relationship between a gene and a chromosome. Imagine a set of books, perhaps the Harry Potter series. The entire series on the shelf is analogous to the genome. Each book can be thought of as a chromosome. Within each book are chapters, these can be thought of as genes. Lastly, the 26 letters of the alphabet are arranged to make the variation of words within the genes. The genetic code has 4 letters to make unique arrangements/sequences. What would be the consequence if a few sentences or a chapter or an entire book was lost from the series? Would the story still make sense? (This would be analogous to mutations and chromosomal abnormalities.)

Pairs of Shoes and Pairs of Chromosomes

Written by Kelly A. Hogan, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

When discussing homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids, I often use analogies to shoes or socks. For example, I may have two pairs of the same cute flats, one pair in yellow and one in turquoise. These flats are the same size, same brand, exact same style. The yellow shoes are like sister chromatids to each other, just as the turquoise shoes are sister chomatids with each other. The yellow and turquoise are like homologs to each other. To carry the analogy further, I ask them what a pair of running sneakers might be analogous to. (These would be a completely different chromosome.)

Losing Control of a Car Relates to Unregulated Cell Division

Written by Kelly A. Hogan, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

When discussing the cell cycle and cancer causing genes, I often use an analogy to cars. There are two ways to lose control of a car: the gas pedal can get stuck down or the brakes will not work when engaged. In either case, the car speeds along without driver control. In this anology, tumor supressors are like brakes, which normally prevent the cell cycle from losing control (preventing cancer). When mutated, the brakes are lost and the cell divides out of control. Proto-oncogenes are like the gas pedal, in that they promote cell division. When mutated, like a gas pedal stuck down, they cause unregulated cell division.

Babysitting Gives Students Experience with Interspecific Competition

Written by Kelly A. Hogan, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

When discussing interspecific competition I always get students to think about a sitiation in which they are babysitting two kids. I make up different scenarios to illustrate ideas of competition. For example, I might tell them that there are two brothers (age 8 and 4) and only one remote control for the video game. What do they predict would happen with the brothers? If the big brother pushes the little brother out of the way and takes the control for himself, I explain Gause’s competitive exclusion principle. If I ask them what they might suggest as the babysitter, and they usually come to the conclusion quickly that the boys must share the remote. The little brother may “adapt” to his big brother by using it only when the big brother goes to eat a snack. Sharing the remote, illustrates resource partitioning as a way of differentiating niches, in this case temporal differentiation.

Keeping an Organized Dorm Room Requires Energy, Just Like in a Cell

Written by Jennifer A. Metzler, Ball State University

When discussing thermodynamics and why cells do not break the laws because they are so organized, even though entropy is always increasing, I ask them to think of the place where they live, whether a dorm room, apartment, or house. Then I ask them to think of the difference between keeping it clean and organized or letting it become messy and disorganized. I ask them how much energy it takes for them to keep things clean and organized versus messy and disorganized. They all answer more energy to maintain order. So, then I discuss how cells are no different, if they want to maintain order they must constantly take in energy, and when they stop doing so they die and lose their order. Also, mentioning that they maintain the ever increasing entropy by giving off heat.

Satellite TV and Photosystems

Written by Jennifer A. Metzler, Ball State University

When discussing how a photosystem works to capture light energy, I ask students to compare it to a satellite TV dish. The job of the dish is to capture and focus the TV signal so they can watch their favorite show. The job of the antenna complexes is to capture the light energy and then pass that energy (focusing) to the reaction center so that light energy can be passed on in the form of excited electrons to begin converting the light energy into chemical energy in the first stage of photosynthesis.

Using Waves at the Beach to Describe Concentration Gradients

Written by Jennifer A. Metzler, Ball State University

When discussing passive versus active transport and the difference between an input of cellular energy, I ask students to imagine they are at the beach or at a wave pool. Since passive transport is going down a concentration gradient, I tell them to liken it to having the waves at their back and moving into shore. It is not a problem for them at all and they do not need to expend any energy as they are going with the flow. With active transport going against the concentration gradient, I tell them to imagine turning around and having the waves hit their chest and try to move away from shore. In this case they must expend energy as they are going against the flow of the waves.

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Quality: HD
Title : Nocturnal Animals
Release : 2016-11-04.
Language : English.
Runtime : 116 min.
Genre : Drama, Thriller.
Stars : Amy Adams, Jake Gyllenhaal, Michael Shannon, Aaron Taylor-Johnson, Isla Fisher, Armie Hammer.

Susan Morrow receives a book manuscript from her ex-husband – a man she left 20 years earlier – asking for her opinion of his writing. As she reads, she is drawn into the fictional life of Tony Hastings, a mathematics professor whose family vacation turns violent.

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Dance Club Patrons Describe Water Molecules

Written by Dave Sheldon, St. Clair County Community College

I approach the changing density of H2O by having students imagine a high energy dance club. They imagine the loudest and most energetic night club that they can, and describe it in detail. They focus on the intense energy, the motion of the people and the number of people on the dance floor. I include some techno music to get them thinking! Once focused on the high energy and rapid motion of the patrons, I modify the scenario. First I drastically reduce the energy by cutting the music, killing the strobes and bringing up the house lights. My students describe a ringing of ears and a much slower movement by the club patrons. Second, I describe every person as an H2O molecule with their arms outstretched in front of them at a 90° angle. Their hands represent two Hydrogen atoms and the middle of their back represents their Oxygen atom. Hydrogen bonding causes them to place their hands on the backs of two other people while two more people place one of each of their hands on your back. With low energy in the club, these bonds last for a relatively long time and the water molecules form a low density crystalline lattice. The people on the dance floor during the high energy rave would no longer fit in this low energy orientation. Some even note that they may actually be forced out of the club through windows and doors, which is what happens when water freezes.