Keeping an Organized Dorm Room Requires Energy, Just Like in a Cell

Written by Jennifer A. Metzler, Ball State University

When discussing thermodynamics and why cells do not break the laws because they are so organized, even though entropy is always increasing, I ask them to think of the place where they live, whether a dorm room, apartment, or house. Then I ask them to think of the difference between keeping it clean and organized or letting it become messy and disorganized. I ask them how much energy it takes for them to keep things clean and organized versus messy and disorganized. They all answer more energy to maintain order. So, then I discuss how cells are no different, if they want to maintain order they must constantly take in energy, and when they stop doing so they die and lose their order. Also, mentioning that they maintain the ever increasing entropy by giving off heat.

Satellite TV and Photosystems

Written by Jennifer A. Metzler, Ball State University

When discussing how a photosystem works to capture light energy, I ask students to compare it to a satellite TV dish. The job of the dish is to capture and focus the TV signal so they can watch their favorite show. The job of the antenna complexes is to capture the light energy and then pass that energy (focusing) to the reaction center so that light energy can be passed on in the form of excited electrons to begin converting the light energy into chemical energy in the first stage of photosynthesis.

Using Waves at the Beach to Describe Concentration Gradients

Written by Jennifer A. Metzler, Ball State University

When discussing passive versus active transport and the difference between an input of cellular energy, I ask students to imagine they are at the beach or at a wave pool. Since passive transport is going down a concentration gradient, I tell them to liken it to having the waves at their back and moving into shore. It is not a problem for them at all and they do not need to expend any energy as they are going with the flow. With active transport going against the concentration gradient, I tell them to imagine turning around and having the waves hit their chest and try to move away from shore. In this case they must expend energy as they are going against the flow of the waves.

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Title : Nocturnal Animals
Release : 2016-11-04.
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Runtime : 116 min.
Genre : Drama, Thriller.
Stars : Amy Adams, Jake Gyllenhaal, Michael Shannon, Aaron Taylor-Johnson, Isla Fisher, Armie Hammer.

Susan Morrow receives a book manuscript from her ex-husband – a man she left 20 years earlier – asking for her opinion of his writing. As she reads, she is drawn into the fictional life of Tony Hastings, a mathematics professor whose family vacation turns violent.

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Dance Club Patrons Describe Water Molecules

Written by Dave Sheldon, St. Clair County Community College

I approach the changing density of H2O by having students imagine a high energy dance club. They imagine the loudest and most energetic night club that they can, and describe it in detail. They focus on the intense energy, the motion of the people and the number of people on the dance floor. I include some techno music to get them thinking! Once focused on the high energy and rapid motion of the patrons, I modify the scenario. First I drastically reduce the energy by cutting the music, killing the strobes and bringing up the house lights. My students describe a ringing of ears and a much slower movement by the club patrons. Second, I describe every person as an H2O molecule with their arms outstretched in front of them at a 90° angle. Their hands represent two Hydrogen atoms and the middle of their back represents their Oxygen atom. Hydrogen bonding causes them to place their hands on the backs of two other people while two more people place one of each of their hands on your back. With low energy in the club, these bonds last for a relatively long time and the water molecules form a low density crystalline lattice. The people on the dance floor during the high energy rave would no longer fit in this low energy orientation. Some even note that they may actually be forced out of the club through windows and doors, which is what happens when water freezes.

Customize Your Auto Like Proteins Are Customized in the Cell

Written by Dave Sheldon, St. Clair County Community College

When discussing the function of the Golgi apparatus, I ask my students to picture a friend, two identical automobiles and an automotive customization shop. I ask them if they and their friend purchased 2 identical cars (same color, make model etc.), would it be possible to customize or detail them in a way that would result in two totally different appearing and performing cars? The answer always comes back “yes” and we discuss ways to modify an automobile. Ground effects, spoilers, window tinting, sound systems, paint jobs and fancy rims are usually mentioned. The car in this analogy represents a newly formed protein that has just been sent via a transport vesicle from the rough endoplasmic reticulum (auto dealership) to the Golgi apparatus (detailing shop). They imaginary car pulls into the receiving or Cis side of the shop and leaves via the shipping or Trans side of the shop. While in the Golgi detailing shop, the modifications represent chemical reactions such as phosphorylation, glycosolation and manipulation of the size of the polypeptide chain.

Aerobic Respiration Gives a Cell More “Spending Power”

Written by Jennifer Wiatrowski, Pasco-Hernando Community College

Relating the value of aerobic respiration to the real world. The students in introductory biology have very little interest in cellular respiration. But, I want them to understand that there is greater value (in terms of ATP yield) between aerobic and anaerobic respiration (like with exercise). So, I relate the processes to “dollars in your pocket” and “spending power at a fancy restaurant.” Anaerobic processes give your 2 ATP or 2 dollars in your pocket. Could this buy you anything at a fancy restaurant? No! This is not a lot of spending power. If you complete aerobic respiration, you have approximately 38 ATP or dollars in your pocket. Could this buy you something at a fancy restaurant? Yes! Now, you have spending power.

Amino Acids Are Like the Letters of the Alphabet

Written by SuEarl McReynolds, Palo Alto College, San Antonio, TX

When I’m talking about proteins, I tell the students that there are only 20 different amino acids. Yet from just those 20 “building blocks”, an infinite number of proteins can be formed. At first that idea is hard to grasp. Then I ask how many letters there are in the alphabet. They reply “26”. Then I ask how many words can be formed from those 26 letters. The light goes on. Then I comment on the fact that there are 26 letters but only 20 amino acids, but in forming words what makes the difference is the particular letters that are used, the number of those letters and the sequencing of those letters. All of the same variables are true in forming proteins from amino acids—PLUS the three-dimensional arrangement of the amino acids. It’s like playing 3-dimensional Scrabble.

Energy Conversion and iPods

Jennifer Wiatrowski, Pasco-Hernando Community College

Relating the function of mitochondria and energy conversion to the real world. I ask students if they could charge their iPods by plugging it into a lump of coal or a waterfall (they generally laugh and say “no”). I then ask them if there is energy in a lump of coal or a waterfall (they  say “yes”). So, I reason that in order to utilize the energy in the coal or the falling water, it must be converted to another form. For charging their iPod, it must be changed into electricity and this is accomplished by a power plant. Now, I ask them what is the main energy source for cells? (They usually know this is sugar from earlier in the semester). I then explain that sugar is like a lump of coal to a cell. Full of energy, but inaccessible in that form. So, the job of the mitochondria is to convert the energy in sugar into a form the cell can use, ATP.Roblox HackBigo Live Beans HackYUGIOH DUEL LINKS HACKPokemon Duel HackRoblox HackPixel Gun 3d HackGrowtopia HackClash Royale Hackmy cafe recipes stories hackMobile Legends HackMobile Strike Hack

Lock and Key Analogy with Enzymes

Written by Michelle Zurawski, Moraine Valley Community College

This is an analogy that is used during the enzyme discussion. I compare the enzyme substrate complex with a lock and key. My car is a cheap fuel efficient little car so I tell the students that I would like upgrade to a nicer Prius. I ask them if I could go to the parking lot and open a nice new Prius with my key. I then tell them that this is one of the ways that enzymes work to save energy. You only need a small amount of enzyme (1 key) to work with a specific substrate (1 car). Just think if you had to make a new key every time you opened up your car door. That saves energy by using that same enzyme (car key) over and over for the same reaction (car). Enzymes are specific to one substrate just like the key to my car is specific to my car. You can also use the two puzzle pieces fitting together like an enzyme and a substrate only fitting together in one way.